Closing the Gap

Flyer social media 2 e1592303781463 2

As part of the European Cyber Diplomacy Initiative, the EU Cyber Direct project joins forces with the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and numerous research institutions to organise an international conference that contributes to closing the gap between scholars and practitioners working on cyber-related issues. The conference aims to foster productive exchanges between different generations of scholars (emerging talents and established researchers), disciplines (law, political science, international relations, economics, IT, media studies), sectors (government, private sector, academia, NGOs) and regions (Global South-North).

As an expression of ‘academic diplomacy’, the conference will bring together researchers from around the world, in addition to the government officials and private sector representatives. Initially planned as an academic conference at the Egmont Palace in Brussels, the event is now designed as an online event, which significantly enlarges the scope for participation. The sessions will be organised in two thematic streams – resilience and cyber diplomacy – and will be organised in three different formats:

  • Panels: composed of upcoming and established scholars selected on the basis of the submitted abstracts. These are accessible for registered participants through the private page.
  • Roundtables: focused on the most topical issues linked to cyber diplomacy and featuring a mixture of senior scholars, practitioners, and policymakers.These are open to the public and accessible through the links in the programme below.
  • Workshops: interactive masterclasses to develop concrete skills or provide new perspectives. These are accessible for registered participants through the private page.




Organizers and Partners


Monday 13 July

Keynote opening remarks
Click here to join

9.00-9.05 Brussels (CEST) Welcome Remarks

Gustav Lindstrom, Director, EU Institute for Security Studies

9.05-9.15 Brussels (CEST) Opening keynote remarks

Mariya Gabriel, European Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth

9.15-9.30 Brussels (CEST) Opening keynote remarks

Philippe Goffin, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defence, Belgium

Panel session 1B. Cyber diplomacy: exploring the concept

10.00-11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Xymena Kurowska, Central European University, Hungary

Thomas Renard, Egmont Institute, Belgium &

André Barrinha, University of Bath, United Kingdom

Power and Diplomacy in the post-liberal cyberspace

Marzio Di Feo & Luigi Martino, University of Florence, Italy

The role of Multi-track Diplomacy in reducing conflict stemming from cyberspace

Joe Burton, Université Libre de Bruxelles & University of Waikato & George Christou, University of Warwick, UK

Bridging the Gap Between Cyber War and Cyber Peace

Aude Gery, GEODE, France

Norms of Responsible Behaviour in Cyberspace: A Danger for the Security and Stability of Cyberspace?

Bart Hogeveen, ASPI

Kathryn Jones, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK

Roundtable 1. Closing the knowledge gap

13.00-14.00 Brussels (CEST)

Click here to join

Information is the key component of the knowledge-based policy making. In cyberspace, information and knowledge are diffused and shared among many groups of stakeholders. This roundtable will address the following question: How can we address the existing knowledge gaps in order to promote more policy-relevant research and better-informed policymaking?

Frederick Douzet, Paris 8, France

Nayia Barmpaliou, World Economic Forum

Ruhiya Seward, International Development Research Centre, Canada

Fabrizio Tassinari, School of Transnational Governance, European University Institute

Hilde Hardeman, Director/Head of the Service for Foreign Policy Instruments, European Commission

Panel session 2B. Unlawful activities in cyberspace: legal and policy responses

15.00-16.30 Brussels (CEST)

Joyce Hakmeh, Chatham House

Fabio Cristiano, Dennis Broeders & Daan Weggemans, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms, The Netherlands

Mainstreaming and countering cyber terrorism: kryptonite for the promotion of digital rights?

Francis Monyango Otieno, Kenya ICT Action Network

Kenya’s computer misuse and cybercrime act is back: the implementation hurdle

Ivar Hartmann, Yasmin Curzi & Julia Iunes, FGV Law School Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Roles of the Stakeholders in Fighting Cyberterrorism in Social Media

Trong Van Nguyen, Waseda University, Japan

International cooperation against cybercrime: legal challenges of Vietnam

Philipp Amann, European Cybercrime Centre

Folake Olagunju, ECOWAS

Tuesday 14 July

Panel session 3A. Data economy and data management

10.00 – 11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Louise Marie Hurel, London School of Economics and Political Science / Igarapé Institute, Brazil

Anjali Kaushik, Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, India

Transborder Data Flows Comparing the EU-India Approaches and a Possible Cooperation Framework

Beltsazar Krisetya, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Indonesia

From e-government to cloud-government: Examining Indonesia’s leapfrogging attempt in data governance

Joanna Kulesza, University of Łódz, Poland

Cybercrime, DNS abuse and cybersecurity due diligence

Beatriz Kira, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Digital technology governance: developing countries’ priorities and concerns

Joanna Swiatkowska, AGH Cracow

Paul Timmers, Oxford University

Panel session 3B. Operationalising cyber diplomacy

10.00 – 11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Laura Groenendaal, German Marshall Fund of the United States

Yuliya Miadzvetskaya, CiTiP – KU Leuven, Belgium

Restrictive measures as a cyber-deterrence tool of the EU Cyber Diplomacy?

Myong-hyun Go, Asan Institute for Policy Studies, South Korea

Building an Effective Multilateral Framework for Cybersecurity: The Use of Whitelist for Ensuring Responsible State Behavior in Cyberspace

Jeroen van der Ham, University of Twente, The Netherlands

EthicsfIRST: A Code of Ethics for Incident Response and Security Teams National Cyber Security Centre

Anastasiya Kazakova, Kaspersky, Russia

Global Transparency Initiative as a framework for increasing trust in cyberspace

Manon Le Blanc, European External Action Service

Xymena Kurowska, Central European University

Roundtable 2. Closing the international law gap

13.00-14.00 Brussels (CEST)

Click here to join

International law is a critical element in the debate about stability and irresponsible state behaviour in cyberspace. Yet, only a handful of governments around the world have made their views on the application of international law in cyberspace known. The purpose of this session is to look at the ongoing initiatives undertaken by both research and policy communities to answer: Does international law matter and how can we close the existing gap linked to its application in cyberspace?

Francois Delerue, IRSEM, France

Mike Schmitt, United States Military Academy West Point

Cathrin Bauer-Bulst, European Commission

Duncan Hollis, Temple University & Inter-American Juridical Committee, Organization of American States

Huu Phu Nguyen, PhD Candidate, Associate Researcher, Institute of Strategic Studies, Diplomatic Academy of Viet Nam

Tania Jančárková, Law researcher, NATO CCDCOE

Panel session 4A. Cyber and digital policies: good practices

15.00 – 16.30 Brussels (CEST)

Enrico Calandro, Research ICT Africa, South Africa

Tinatin Akhvlediani, CEPS, Belgium

Digital and Cyber Dimensions of the EU Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Eva Claessen, KU Leuven, Centre for Global Governance Studies (GGS), Belgium

Defining virtual borders – the impact of strategic narratives on Russia’s role in cyber norm development

Ahmet Salih Bıçakcı & Ayhan Gücüyener Evren, Kadir Has University, Turkey

Sisyphean Task Of Building Cyber Security Culture And Resilience: Examples Of Israel And Turkey

Bruna Toso de Alcântara, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Fellow at the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society (HIIG), Brazil

Is the Digital Three Seas Initiative a model to be exported? Applicability to the Brazilian case to mitigate security concerns with 5G

Joanna Kulesza, University of Łódz, Poland

Eneken Tikk, Cyber Policy Institute, Estonia

Panel session 4B. Democracy in the digital age

15.00 – 16.30 Brussels (CEST)

Ivar Hartmann, FGV Law School Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Arthur Ernest Gwagwa, The Regional Cybersecurity Capacity Centre for Southern Africa (C3SA), Strathmore Law School, South Africa

Engaging citizens on cybersecurity issues to safeguard African elections in the digital democracy era

Pavlina Pavlova, OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Warsaw, Poland

The human dimension of cybersecurity: Case study of human rights defenders

Adam Pontius, Central European University, Hungary

The democratic state as an actor or an arena? Examining the impact of cyber on efforts to referee democracy

Sophia Ignatidou, Academy Associate, Chatham House

Michael Aendenhof, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Belgium

Wednesday 15 July

Panel session 5A. New technologies and cybersecurity

10.00-11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Simona Soare, EU Institute for Security Studies

Moonyati Yatid, Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Malaysia

Security Concerns in Artificial Intelligence: Current Approaches in ASEAN and Considerations for Malaysia

Lorenzo Pupillo, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Belgium

Artificial intelligence and cybersecurity: avoiding the technology trap

Gills Lopes, Brazilian Air Force University, Universidade da Força Aérea, UNIFA, Brazil

The cyber dimension in Aerospace Power: new perspectives for Brazil

Amy Ertan, University of London & Christian Perrone, ITS Rio

Managing 5G security challenges: options for multi-stakeholder governance

Ken Katayama, KEIO University

Oscar Jonsson, Center for the Governance of Change, Spain

Panel session 5B. Learning from the best? Comparing national approaches

10.00-11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Hannes Ebert, German Marshall Fund of the United States, Washington, D.C.

Louise Marie Hurel, London School of Economics and Political Science / Igarapé Institute, Brazil

Pathways to Cyber Policy: Unpacking Brazil’s Domestic/Foreign Policy Paradox(es)

Jayadev Parida, Amity University, India

India’s Cyber (In)Security Concerns and Global Ambitions

The Phuong Nguyen & Thanh Trung Nguyen, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University-HCMC

Cyber security in Vietnamese Context: Policies and Practices

Rogier Creemers, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Cybersovereignty in China: Rhetoric and Realization

Natalie Thompson, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Targeted Financial Sanctions and Countering Malicious Cyber Activity

Laura Carpini, Ambassador for Cyber Issues, Italy

Patryk Pawlak, EU Institute for Security Studies

Roundtable 3. Closing the accountability gap

13.00-14.00 Brussels (CEST)

Click here to join

In the debate about responsible state behaviour, the question of accountability – that of states, private actors and individuals – has become the key to understanding responsibilities of individual stakeholders in the cyber ecosystem. While most of the conversation to date has focused on the issue of attribution as a silver bullet for more accountability, this session will aim to answer: How do we establish accountability for irresponsible and/or malicious behaviour in cyberspace?

Dennis Broeders, The Hague Program for Cyber Norms


Kerry-Ann Barrett, Organization of American States

Heli Tiirmaa-Klaar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Estonia

Wiktor Staniecki, European External Action Service

Arjun Jayakumar, ORF, India

Panel session 6A. Digital transformation and cyber capacity building

15.00 – 16.30 Brussels (CEST)

Ian Wallace, German Marshall Fund of the United States, Washington, D.C.

Babatunde Okunoye, Paradigm Initiative, Nigeria

Internet Access in Africa: Towards a Human Rights centred approach

William H. Dutton, Patricia Esteve-Gonzalez, Ruth Shillair & Sadie Creese, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

The Shaping and Impacts of Cyber Security Capacity

Ilina Georgieva & Tjerk Timan, TNO, The Netherlands

Openness Online: The role of strategic visibility in the shaping of cyber norms

Xuechen Chen & Xinchuchu Gao, King’s College London, United Kingdom

Bridging the Gap: How Can the EU’s Digital Connectivity Strategy Fit into East Asia’s Digital Landscape

Francesca Bosco, CyberPeace Institute,

Enrico Calandro, Research ICT Africa, South-Africa

Panel session 6B. Different shades of norms: regional perspectives

15:00 – 16:30

Caitriona Heinl, Director, The Azure Forum for Contemporary Security Strategy, Ireland


Arindrajit Basu & Aman Nair, Centre for Internet&Society, India

Confidence Building Measures and the Crystallization of Norms for Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace:A framework for South Asia

Fitri Bintang Timur, Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Indonesia

Pushing for Progress: Extents and Limits for ASEAN Adoption of Responsible Behaviour in the Cyberspace

Nils Berglund & Enrico Calandro, Research ICT Africa, South Africa

African Positions in an Era of Cyber Norms Contestation

Alexandra Paulus, Stiftung Neue Verantwortung & Chemnitz University of Technology

Brazil’s engagement with international cyber norms processes

Jacqueline Eggenschwiler, University of Oxford

Daniel McBryde, Global Affairs Canada

Chris Painter, Chair of the Foundation Board, Global Forum on Cyber Expertise

Keynote address: Closing the Freedom gap

Click here to join

18.00-18.30 Brussels (CEST)

Karuna Nundy, Advocate, Supreme Court of India

Thursday 16 July

Keynote address: Closing the gender gap

9.30-9.50 Brussels (CEST)

Moudhi AlJamea, ICT General manager, STC academy

Panel session 7A. Cyber resilience: from concepts to practice

10.00 – 11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Julia Schuetze, Stiftung Neue Verantwortung

Edrine Wanyama, Collaboration on International ICT Policy in East and Southern Africa (CIPESA), Uganda

Improving Cyber Protection of Consumers in Africa: A Four-Country Comparative Analysis

Jan Martin Lemnitzer, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

Why cyber security insurance should be regulated and compulsory

Mark Corcoral, CERI-Sciences Po and IRSEM, France

Setting the Agenda, Not the Policy: America’s Limited Success in Rhetorically Coercing Europe into a Huawei 5G Ban

Thomas Buchanan, AXA France

Agnieszka Wierzbicka, European External Action Service

Mihoko Matsubara, NTT Japan

Panel session 7B. Identifying trends in cyber defence

10.00 – 11.30 Brussels (CEST)

Motohiro Tsuchiya, KEIO University

Farlina Md Said, Institute of Strategic and International Studies Malaysia

A White Sheet for Cyber Command in Developing states

Tobias Liebetrau, University of Copenhagen

Defending in the grey zone: Three European approaches

Josh Gold, University of Toronto, Canada

Offensive cyber operations: comparative analysis of Five Eyes countries

Jakob Bund, Centre for Security Studies, ETH Zurich

Chelsey Slack, Deputy Head, Cyber Defence Section, NATO

Workshop 1. Closing the gap in practice: Pitching ideas

13.00 – 14.30 Brussels (CEST)

During this informal and hands-on session, participants will have a chance to discuss concrete project ideas with other participants and people directly involved in different aspects of the project cycle: from design to funding and communication.

Ideas will be selected from the whiteboard:

  • 5 minutes presentations of the ideas (3 pitches)
  • 5 minutes: general comments by experts on funding, research design, outreach
  • 15 minutes breakout room on each idea/pitch
  • 20 minutes common discussion

Workshop 2. Careers in cyber

15.00 – 16.15 Brussels (CEST)

Emily Taylor, Chatham House

Danielle Kriz, Palo Alto Networks

Anriette Esterhuysen, Association for Progressive Communications

Madeline Carr, University College London

Teki Akuetteh Falconer, Founder & Executive Director at the Africa Digital Rights’ Hub

Friday 17 July

Keynote address: Closing the diversity gap

9.30-9.50 Brussels (CEST)

Johanna Weaver, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia

Workshop 3: Funding Cyber Research

11.00 – 12.15 Brussels (CEST)

Caitriona Heinl, Director, The Azure Forum for Contemporary Security Strategy, Ireland

Eva Junyent, European Commission, Service for Foreign Policy Instruments

Graciela Selaimen, Ford Foundation

Eli Sugarman, Hewlett Foundation

Rachael Falk, Australian Cybersecurity Cooperative Research Centre

Roundtable 4: Closing the geographical gap

13:00 – 14:00 Brussels (CEST)

The study of cyber-related issues and the number of policy processes and initiatives addressing cyberspace have grown exponentially over the past decade. Yet, the scholarship on the topic as well as policy debates are dominated by a small group of countries in what some call Global North. This session aims to answer: What are the main obstacles to a more inclusive debate about cyber and what are the instruments and mechanisms at our disposal to make this happen?

Enrico Calandro, ICT Research Africa

Luca Belli, CyberBRICS

Nibal Idlebi, Chief of Innovation Section, United Nation-Economic Social Commission for Western Asia (UN-ESCWA)

Gbenga’ Sesan, Paradigm Initiative

Philip Lark, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies


Timezones or5bqipzboe5memv2srfwd4ql9b1wf8vtn8llp7uzw

Organisers and partners

As part of the European Cyber Diplomacy Initiative, the EU Cyber Direct project, Egmont Institute, and the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in partnership with other research institutions organised this international conference for scholars, policy analysts and practitioners working on cyber-related issues.

Ctg partners and organisers