India and the European Union share many values and principles, such as inclusiveness, democracy, and multilateralism. With 1.4 billion people, India is the largest democracy in the world and considers itself as a leader among the Global South. India and the EU share common visions of a rules-based global order and are aligned on their commitment to an open, free, secure, stable, peaceful, and accessible cyberspace, enabling economic growth and innovation. In light of India’s rapid digitization and connectivity, the EU-India Strategic Partnership & Roadmap to 2025 includes commitments to cooperate on new and emerging technologies, norms and regulatory frameworks, and international standards.
As of 2009, Ukraine has been a member of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) and a strategic partner for the EU. On the basis of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement
(AA) signed in 2014, the country has engaged in legislative and policy reforms aiming at gradual convergence with the EU acquis
, including on digital economy. During the past two years, digitalisation has become a “flagship topic”
in Ukraine, with a growing focus on e-government, digital citizenship, and state support for the local IT industry. Ukraine suffered large-scale cyberattacks during the 2014 presidential elections [x
], distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks during the Russian invasion of Crimea in 2014 [x
], malware attacks on its power grid in 2015 [x
], and was also heavily impacted by the devastating global-scale NotPetya attack
in 2017. This explains why Ukraine prioritised capacity building efforts to strengthen its cyber resilience.