Brazil originally refrained from signing the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime and had expressed scepticism
in response to invitations to accede. The argument advanced
was that the treaty is Western-biased and lacking in inclusivity, given that Brazil was not part of the original drafting process. During voting for UNGA Resolution A/74/401
, the Russian-sponsored proposal for a new binding Cybercrime Convention, Brazil abstained; during meetings with the BRICS leaders, however, Brazil had endorsed
Russian pleas for a new cybercrime instrument to replace the Budapest regime. Upon invitation by the Council of Europe, Brazil finally initiated the process of accession
to the Convention in December 2019 and is now an observer country.